自考欧洲文化入门串讲资料

l 希腊罗马Homer Author of epicsSappho Lyric poetAeschylusTragic dramatistSophocles Tragic dram…

l 希腊罗马

Homer Author of epics

Sappho Lyric poet

Aeschylus

Tragic dramatist

Sophocles Tragic dramatist

Euripides Tragic dramatist

Arostophoes Comedy writer

Herodotus Greeks and Persians Father of the history

Thucydides Athens and Sparta, Syracuse historian

Pythagoras All things were numbers

Heracleitue Fire is the primary element

Democritus Materialist , atomic

Socrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical method

Plato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas

Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made concrete inspanidual realities

Euclid geometrist

Others Diogenes, Pyrrhon, Epicurus philosophy

Cicero Far less rhetorical, but colloquial and intimate Prose writer

Caesar I came, I saw, I conquered Prose writer

Lucretius On the nature of things poet

Virgil -Aeneas-tragic hero

4th century B.C.后半叶古希腊在Alexander,king of Macedon的领导干部下,5th century B.C.做到巅峰,146B.C.被罗马帝国攻破。

l 天主教和古兰经

Jews—之前叫Hebrews,3800B.C.越过中东地区荒漠,1300B.C.Moses领着Hebrews离去印度,逐渐她们的Exodus,他在 Sinai山定了ten commandments in the name of God,40年后Hebrews居住Pelestine, known as Canaan,Hebrew人的历史时间口头上传输计入the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,她们在Babylon产生synagogue(忧太聚会)来弘扬她们的教规。

Jesus日常生活在第一个古罗马帝国Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1于313年公布天主教合理合法,Emperor Theodosius于393年公布天主教为国教。

Hebrew人的历史时间口头上传输计入the old Testament,旧约包括39这书,写了从1000B.C.-100A.D.的事儿,重要的前五本是Pentateuch,旧约关键由 Hebrew写出,the New Testment主要是Greek的方式,包括14这书,历史悠久的Latin Bible叫Vulgate,在1382年被John Wycliff译成了英文,Greek Bible叫Septuagint

l 欧洲中世纪

逐渐于476西罗马帝国得衰落

5-11世纪

在文化艺术上承继了Roman culture,发生了Hebrew and Gothic culture

feudalism主要是一种system of land holding,for exchanging military service,它或是一种local and decentralized government

1045,主教堂瓦解为the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church

还击Moslems,开始了Crusades

Charles Martel给战士们estates known as fiefs in 732

St. Thomas Aquinas写了The Summa Theologica总会结欧洲中世纪哲学的全部专业知识并产生了系统软件,他觉得feudal hierarchy of society is God‘s rule

The power of feudal rulers is God‘s will

Pope is Crist‘s Plenipotentiary

欧洲中世纪中国封建社会的人关键分成三个级别:clergy, lords, peasants

Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the vernacular.

l 文艺复兴时期与宗教改革

Boccaccio Decameron

Cervantes Don Quixote(crowned literature of Spain)

Petrarch Sonnet,father of modern poetry

Da Vinci Artist in Italy

Michelangelo Artist in Italy

Raphael Known for his Madonna Artist in Italy

Titian Oil color Artist in Italy

Ronsard France

Rabelais Cargantua and Pantagruel France

Montaigne The Essais France

Thomas More Utopia

Shakespeare crowned literature of England

Copernicus The father of modern astronomy

Vesalius The founder of modern medicine Anatomy

Aldus Manutius The foremost printer in Italy

Machiavelli Father of political science Political sciencehistoriography

Dante

Vosari

others Giotto,Brunelleschi,Donatello,Giorgione,Spencer, Bacon artists

Reformation was led by Martin Luther. 它认为用the Bible的肯定权威性替代the Roman Catholic Church的肯定权威性,这推动了资产阶级的发展趋势。

1492, Columbus发觉了America

1487,Dias发觉了the cape of good hope

1497,da Gama发觉了绕开好望角去印尼的航道

美国在Elizabeth I的执政下做到全盛时期

宗教改革之后,天主教瓦解为:the Protestant and the Roman Catholic

Humanism是文艺复兴时期时期的生命观念

l 17世纪

Leibniz Distinguishes three levels of understandingcaculaus

Milton Areopagitica,

English revolution

Bacon Knowledge is power England

Descartes I think therefore I am France

Corneille FrenchNeoclassicismdramatists

Racine

Moliere

Locke

许多科学研究器材在被创造发明:microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum

Bacon觉得哲学思想应当与哲学分离

Leibniz差别了人的三种了解水平,自我认同,观念,在潜意识中(潜意识)

Bacon抵制deductive method,开创了inductive method

Hobbes觉得好是的执政方法是monarchy

1689,the Bill of Rights创建了the Parliament高于一切的支配权

美国革命中,Cromwell领着行動 Milton给予观念

荷兰知名的工程建筑:Palace of Versailles Garden Front

East Front of the Louvre

美国著名古建筑:St. Paul‘s Cathedral

17th:physics, mathematics

18th:chemistry

19th:biology

20th:psychology

French classicism

Baroque art

Newton

Galileo

l 启蒙思想

Diderot France

Montesquieu Separation of powers

Voltaire

Hobbes Social contract

Locke Social contract

Rousseau

Swift

Defoe

Henry Fielding

Samuel Richardson The founder of English domestic noval

Lessing German dramastistGerman classicim

Goethe

schiller

Kant Waterhead of modern philosophyPropose the nebular hypothesis

Pope poet Dr.Johnson lexicographer

J.S.Bach ChristianityMajor musicians of the musical Englithenment

Handel

Haydn Classical period Viennese school

Mozart

Beethoven Romantic Movement

18世纪两大知名健身运动:The American War of Independence(1776)

The Declaration of Independence

The French Revolution(1789)

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Rococo造型艺术的典型性工程建筑意味着:Hotel de Soubise

Addison, Steele在刊物The Tatler , The Spectator上论文发表

The Enlightenment

Rococo art

l 现代主义

France

Balzzac

Stendhal a novel is a mirror walking along the road

Flaubert first French realist Objectivity, detachment

Zora Naturalism, scientific heredity

Maupssant

Chickikov A character in Shame, and hypocrisy

Peter the Great Russian reforms. End the middle age

Dostoyevsky

Ibsen For women hypocrisy and seemy politics

Strindberg Autobiograpgical Existence and self-realization

English

George Eliot Scientific, reason,objectivity

Charles Dickens

Thackeray Becky Sharp

Thomas Hardy Wessex uperior, pitiless, indifference

Berbard Shaw Fabian society major Barbara> Nobel Prize in 1925

Russia

Gogol

Turgenev First gain recognition in the west

Dostoevsky

Tolstoy

Other countries

Walt Whitman

Henry James The master beyond all masters, psychological subtlety

Mark Twain Father of American literature

Gustave Courbet Neo-Baroque Brutality and vulgarity

Millet Outside the circle of politics painter

Manet The luncheon on the grass Challenge to Greco-Roman

Monet Impression:sunrise

Van Gogh Against impressionism

Gauguin Use color in unexpected combinations

Auguste Rodin Art for art‘s sake sculpture

Antonin Dvorak The symphony in E Minor Patterns found in folk music

Claude Debussy The founder of modern musical impression

抵制falseness, sentimentality

Mark Twain称1870-1890年的英国为the gilded age,内部战争以后,New England的必要性让坐落于New York

Realism

l 现实主义和其他

T.S.Eliot

Conrad Human motives , moral values

Virginia Woolf Bloomsbury, stream of consciousness

James Joyce

Symbolism, naturalistic,interior monologue

W.B.Yeats imagist movement, Symbolism

William Faulkner Conflictsbrotherhood

Gorky Trilogy

John Osborn

Robbe-Grillet Nouveau Roman

Samuel Beckett Absurd Drama

Tomas Mann Psychological effect of isolation

Andre Gide 1947,Nobel Prize

Albert Camus meaning of life, values 1957,Nobel Prize

M.A.Sholokhov 1965,Nobel Prize

Marcel Proust Remembrance of things past

Kingsley Amis The angry young men

Allen Ginsberg The beat generation

Iack Kerouac The beat generation

Jean-Paul Sartre Existenlialism

Emil Nolde Expressionism In Germany

Joseph Heller Black humor

Fauves Boldest color,

Picasso cubism

Umverto Boccioni futurism

Marcel Duchamp Dada movement

Jackson Pollock Abstract expressionism Drip technique

Henry Moore Three-dimensional sculpter

现实主义繁杂丰富多彩,它包括symbolism, surrealism, cubism, expressionism, futurism

大家这一时期四个杰出的作曲家:

Schoenberg(serialism) Stravinsky(neoclassicism), Bartok, Vaughan Williams

作者: 610

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