自考英语语法课程考试辅导

英语基础语法是关于英语语言表达构造的基础知识。要学精这门课程内容必须系统化、全方位地了解英文语言表达的结构层次及其每一层级上语言表达企业的组成标准,另外必须认知能力语言表达的实际意…

英语基础语法是关于英语语言表达构造的基础知识。要学精这门课程内容必须系统化、全方位地了解英文语言表达的结构层次及其每一层级上语言表达企业的组成标准,另外必须认知能力语言表达的实际意义,语言表达是负荷实际意义的,明白实际意义也是学习培训英语的语法和答题的基本。语言表达的应用是实际意义和构造紧密结合的物质。文中叙述英语基础语法考試中学生非常容易忽视的各一部分检测关键点或难题,并融合近些年(99年至2000年)的英语基础语法技术专业考试试卷和《英语语法自学考试指导练习》中的题型,剖析答题方式 。

一、短语和基本句型

1.英语的句子最先是短语的编码序列。短语是句中被切分的语法企业的方式,句子结构则是语法企业的作用。比如:

The device is the most important invention in many years.

名词词组 动词词组 名词词组

主 语 谓语动词 主语补足语

彼此之间有交叉关系。要留意每一个短语很有可能当担的句子结构,比如:

It is hoped that the two sides may come to an agreement.

____________,the two sides may come to an agreement.(2000年上考题)

剖析:空格符是评注特性语,常以介词短语,故填Hopefully.

2.英文的五个基本句型是了解句子成分的重要。比如,在“谓语 谓语动词 主语补足语”句式中,形容词是连系动词。

The plums looked sweetly(A), but(B) he could not eat(C) the fruit he had stolen(D)。(训练32页)

剖析:look 在这里句中并不是行为动词只是联系支词,故A需改成sweet.

3.在“谓语 谓语动词”句式中,形容词是连系动词。

He rose(A) to speak(B) and was listened(C) with enthusiasm by the large audience(D)。(训练86页)

剖析:listen是连系动词,无被动语态,故C改成was listened to.

4.在“谓语 谓语动词 宾语”句式中,形容词是单宾语及物动词,务必带一个宾语,不然是错句。

It should bear(A) in mind that(B) there us great damage(C) to(D) the forests.(99年下考题)

剖析:that正确引导主语从句,及物动词bear后无宾语,故A改成被动语态。

5.在“谓语 谓语动词 间接宾语 直接宾语”句式中,形容词是双宾语及物动词。

They tell me that he is at home.

I ____________ ____________ that he is at home.(训练177页)

剖析:一个宾语me可因被动语态变谓语I ,另一宾语仍在后面。故填am told.

6.在“谓语 谓语动词 宾语 宾语补足语”句式中,形容词是复合宾语及物动词。宾语后接宾语补足语,及物动词是不是可带宾语补足语及其所需补足语的方式为形容词自身的特性所决策。

Don‘t get the boy ____________ (frighten)into ____________(cry)。(98年下考题)

剖析:依据frighten空格符需要的处于被动实际意义和get能接过去分词做宾语补足语的特点填frightened和crying.

二、专有名词和名词词组

1.要掌握名词词组四个一部分的语序,比如:

all those beautiful warm days in the country

限定词 前置定语 中心语 后置定语

――“What on earth is that?”

――“Don‘t you know? That’s whale,____________.”

A.largest world‘s mammal

B.a largest world mammal

C.the world‘s largest mammal

D.largest mammal of the world(99年下考题)

剖析:C是一切正常语序,其他三个回答均有不正确。

2.限定词对中心语作所说和排列与组合的限制,分成头位、负相关和后位限定词。比如:

These all(A) last few(B) days, we have been busy(C) fighting(D) drought.(99年下考题)

剖析:A错,头位与立位限定词移位,改成All these.

不能另外应用2个头位或2个负相关限定词,后位限定词则能够被重合应用。如在上句中有两个后位限定词。

次之,要留意限定词和可数名词、不可数名词的配搭关联,比如:

Many(A) critics have condemned the television networks for(B) not having much(C) imaginative programs for(D) children.(99年下考题)

剖析:much不能限制可数名词programs,改成many.

3.前置定语中一部分主要是修饰词。经常出现两、三个修饰词的排列难题,比如:

The Republican Party is one of the ____________ parties of the United States.

A.political two principle

B.principle political two

C.two principle political

D.two political principle(99年上考题)

剖析:回答是C,次序为:限定词、一般勾勒性的修饰词、主要用途修饰词。

4.中心语是名词词组的关键,决策该名词词组奇数或复数的概念。

A(A) number of endangered species(B) increases every year as(C) natural resources disappear(D)。(99年下考题)

剖析:A改成The,中心语由species变为number,由于形容词increases是奇数方式。

5.后置定语的方式有修饰词短语、非限定动词短语、代词短语、定语从句等。要留意前、后置定语的互相转换及其方式的转变。比如:

a three-year-old boy / a boy three years old / a boy who is three years old

三、代词

1.代词代指名词词组,代词的所说目标在上文和下面中各自为后呼应和前呼应。应留意代词和所说带的名词词组中间的数、人叫等层面的一致。比如:

None(A) of us knew his real intentions(B) until we were(C) revealed by accident(D)。(98年上考题)

剖析:C错。we改成they指intentions. In their(A) own way, mathematics can(B) be as creative and exciting(C) as(D) poetry.(99年下考题)

剖析:A错。their改成its指mathematics.

2.人称代词代指包括前、后置定语以内的名词词组,不能再带前、后置定语,比如:

For them(A) interested in nature, the club offers(B) hikes and overnight camping(C) each week during(D) the summer.(训练21页)

剖析:them没有后置定语,改成those.

3.人称代词做同位语时,依据所同位的名词词组在句中的成份,挑选主格或宾格。

To(A) the finalists, Bob and I(B), the last high jump was the most exciting as well as(C) the most difficult(D)。(训练20页)

剖析:B错,I改成me,由于所同位的finalists是宾语。

4.不确定代词的用法非常复杂,必须大家逐一去了解他们分别的使用方法。比如:

So(A) is the length of the bridge(B) that the shape of the earth has to be taken into(C) account by(D) its designer.(99年上考题)

剖析:A错。Such而不是so可做代词在这里倒装句中做主语补足语。

四、修饰词和介词以及短语

修饰词或修饰词短语一般作名词词组中的修饰词和补语;介词或介词短语一般作修饰词和介词短语的修饰词和状语。

1.管理中心修饰词和边沿修饰词。边沿修饰词不彻底具有修饰词全部的语法作用。一种边沿修饰词不可以做外置修饰词,比如:

表明身体状况的修饰词:ill,well,unwell,faint

以橙装a逐渐的修饰词,比如ablaze, adrift, afire, aflame, afloat, afoot, afraid, akin, alike, alive, along, amiss, ashamed, aslant, alight, asleep, awake, aware等。

另一种边沿修饰词只有做前置定语,比如:

a mere child, the only reason, sheer arrogance, a certain man, utter nonsense

2.梯度方向修饰词有水平转变,有比较级和最高级别方式,还可以由very等水平状语修饰。非梯度方向修饰词则反过来,比如:

He occupies a ____________ place in English literature.(训练40页)

A.most unique

B.unique

C.least unique

D.very unique

剖析:回答B,由于unique是是非非梯度方向修饰词。

3.ing词尾的修饰词有积极实际意义,ed、able和ible词尾的修饰词具备处于被动实际意义。

The unnatural tides(A) of the ocean(B) left the scientists completely(C) astonishing(D)。(99年下考题)

剖析:回答D,改成astonished,由于该一部分必须处于被动实际意义。

4.留意同词性转换或方式相仿的修饰词、介词中间差别,比如,

In modern(A) industrious(B) areas, sociocultural changes is occurring(C) at an accelerated(D) rate.

剖析:回答B,改成industrial,industrious意为努力的,industrial意为工业生产的。

5.语句有原级较为有as构造,有较为构造有than构造,比如,

Truly speaking(A), success(B) does not own so much to(C) intelligence like(D) diligence.(98年下考题)

剖析:回答D,改成as,由于前边有原级较为构造。

6.留意较为构造的变换,比如:

I am more impressed by the form of the poem than by its content.

I am ____________ so impressed by the content of the poem ____________ by its form.(not as)(98年下考题)

The book cost as much as 50 dollars. The book cost ____________ than 50 dollars.(no less)(98年下考题)

He is the strongest of all the students in his class.

He is stronger ____________ any of his ____________ .(than classmates)(98年下考题)

五、形容词和动词词组

在这里一部分,应留意形容词在语态、语态、语调和非谓语动词等主要表现方法上的转变。

1.情况形容词一般无开展语态。比如

Now that the flowers ___________ , the garden ____________ , good.(教材内容161页)

A.bloom, smells

B.bloom, is smelling

C.are blooming, smells

D.are blooming, is smelling

剖析:回答是C,smell是情况形容词,沒有开展语态。

2.开展语态有极强的姿势的短暂性特点,比如:

My son isn‘t diligent, but he ___________ (work)hard this term.

剖析:填is working,由于“努力”有短暂性。

3.开展语态和一些频度副词并用,有感情颜色,比如:

Nobody likes him, because he ____________ to curry favour with the boss.(99年下考题)

A.is always trying

B.always tries

C.does always try

D.has always tried

剖析:由于“没有人喜爱分”,回答是A.

4.如今完成时态常见so far,up to now,in the past/last…years/days/weeks等时间状语:

“Is there anything wrong?”

“No. So far I ____________ no trouble.”(99年下考题)(回答:have had)

5.过去完成时常表明某一姿势过去的一个姿势以前早已进行,比如:

The secretary opened the mail which ____________ (deliver)that morning.(99年下考题)

剖析:送电子邮件在开启电子邮件以前,故填had been delivered.

6.未来完成进行时常表明一未来姿势在另一未来姿势产生以后才产生,比如:

You won‘t know if it fits until you ____________ (try)it on.(99年下考题)

剖析:试衣服之后才知道是不是贴合,故填have tried.

7.假如及物动词后边的宾语消退,则表明该形容词应是处于被动方式,比如:

It should bear(A) in mind that(B) there is great damage(C) to(D) the forests.(99年下考题)

剖析:回答是A,bear后边无宾语应将其改成处于被动方式。

8.留意would rather(that)/would sooner(that)/would as soon(that)/would prefer(that)构造中的虚拟语气,比如:

I‘d rather you ____________ (post)the letter right away.(99年下考题)

剖析:此空格符形容词表明将来的姿势,填posted.

The show was boring. I‘d rather ____________(not go)to it.(99年下考题)

剖析:此格形容词表明已产生过的姿势,填had not gone.

9.在带有非真正标准的语句中虚拟语气交叉式時间或交叉式语调方式:

If you hadn‘t taken such a long time to get dressed, we ____________(be)there by now.(99年下考题)

剖析:交叉式時间,以往的虚报假定,如今的結果故填would be.

He was attending a meeting, or he ____________(attend)your birthday party.(98年下考题)

剖析:先为阐述语调,后为虚拟语气,故填would have attended.

10.表明提议、指令、规定的四种名词性从句要用虚拟语气,比如:

She asked that flowers ____________ (present)____________(please)the group of visitors.(98年上考题)

剖析:ask的宾语从句,表明规定,故填be presented和to please.

11.动词不定式常见来表明未产生过的姿势,比如:

The museum ____________(renovate)next week is situated on the river‘s bank.(99年下考题)

剖析:由于时间下星期,故填to be renovated.

12.动词不定式的进行式在下面语句中表明以往本要做,可是沒有制成的虚拟语气

I ought ____________(discuss)the matter with you, but I had other business in hand.(98年下考题)

I meant ____________(write)a letter to you, but I just couldn‘t find time.(99年下考题)

剖析:两题各自表明本应当和本准备要做,但未制成,故填to have discussed和to have written.

13.动词不定式的进行式表明姿势产生在语句关键谓语动词所表明的姿势以前。比如:

The building is said ____________(destroy)in a fire two years ago.(99年下考题)

剖析:destroy产生于is said以前,故用进行式。

14.做结果状语时,动词不定式常和only并用;词性标注常和thus并用。

He hurried to the station only ____________(find)the train had gone.

The plane ran into a lamp pole, thus ____________(cause)heavy casualties.(98年下考题)

剖析:各自填to find和causing.

15.逻辑主语后加词性标注构造为独立主格构造,仍特别注意中间的主处于被动关联。比如:

The old man walked with a stick, his hope ____________(slip)away at every step.(98年下考题)

The temperature ____________(be)low, the fuel has to be preheated.(99年下考题)

A man turned corner, a heavy, blue-black revolver ____________(hold)in each hand.(98年下考题)

剖析:上几句中为积极关联,故填slipping和being, 下句中为处于被动关联,故填held.留意不可以填was slipping等,由于分号不联接2个分句。

16.动名词能不能做形容词宾语在于前边的形容词。如果是介词宾语,非谓语动词中仅有动名词能做。比如:

“Why don‘t you try to do that kind of work?”

“I can‘t risk ____________(do)something new right now.”(98年下考题)(回答:doing)

We look forward to ____________(see)you soon.(98年下考题)(回答:seeing)

六、一致关联

1.英语的语法一致指谓语名词词组中心语的方式决策谓语动词的单复数。比如:

A(A) number of endangered species(B) increases(C) every year as natural resources disappear(D)。

剖析:回答是A,改成The,中心语由species变为number.

2.实际意义一致就是指有时候不依据中心语的单复数只是依据其实际意义决策谓语动词的方式。

So long as you have a companion, twenty miles aren‘t a long way to walk, especially on a fine morning like this.(98年下考题)

剖析:twenty miles被当作一个总体,B一部分改成isn‘t a long way.

3.就远原则指一些并列结构做谓语时,其有关方式依据较近的并排成份而定。

English you or your sisters must do it by ____________.(98年下考题)

A.themselves

B.yourself

C.oneself

D.yourselves.

剖析:与your sisters较近,回答为A.

4.谓语的中心语是常为单数实际意义的集体名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。

The police(A) has been searching(B) for a tall dark(C) man with a beard. Until now(D) more than one person is suspected.(98年下考题)

剖析:因为has been而将A一部分改成policeman.

5.谓语的中心语是常为不可数实际意义的集体名词时,谓语动词用奇数方式。

I like to stay long in the park. The green __________ really beautiful.(99年下考题)

A.foliage is

B.foliage are

C.foliages is

D.foliages are

剖析:foliage是该类专有名词,回答是A.

6.定语从句的谓语动词要和该从句引导词所意味着的先行词保持一致。比如:

I am one of(A) those people who(B) by general opinion of the world is(C) counted both(D) infamous and unhappy.

剖析:who指those people, 故C改成are.

七、并列句、复合句和独立结构

1.留意并列结构中合语篇联接中的词义关联,这经常是考察点。

Think it over again(A) but(B) you will be able to find(C) it out(D)。(99年下考题)

剖析:but改成and, 前后左右是标准和結果的关联。

Mr. Robert told his assistant to hold it right side up and be careful not to jerk it ____________ the mechanism.

A.or he would damage

B.and he would damage

C.or he damaged

D.and he damaged

(99年下考题)

剖析:必须的实际意义为“不然”,姿势尚为产生,故选A.

Public transportation in those(A) countries is expanding(B), and consequently(C) the use of subways in some metropolitan(D) areas is on the decline.(98年下考题)

剖析:C一部分实际意义应是“殊不知”或“可是”,改成however、yet等。

2.留意从句各种引导词不一样的作用,比如:

That our computer failed to work properly was ____________ the bill was incorrect.(98年下考题)

A.why

B.because

C.whether

D.since

剖析:because和since不正确引导谓语补语从句,该从句实际意义必须一副词,故选A.

She emphasized the fact ____________ people do something dishonest they are really cheating themselves.(98年下考题)

A.which then

B.that when

C.that those

D.those which

剖析:that正确引导同位语从句,when正确引导该从句中的時间状语从句,故选B.

No matte(A) who(B) has skills as well as(C) knowledge must be treated well, mustn‘t he(C)?(98年下考题)

剖析:回答为A,改成Anyone.此句还可改成:Whoever had skills and knowledge must be treated well, mustn‘t he?或是No matter who has skills and knowledge, he must be treated well, mustn’t he?

The boy no longer reads the same kind of stories ____________ used to fascinated him. A.which

B.as

C.to be

D.having(98年下考题)

剖析:定语从句先行词前若有the same或such, 该从句引导词为as.

3.留意分号前后左右不可以是并列结构,只有依附构造,比如:

Mr. Smith will move into(A) his new house next Monday(B), by that time(C) it will be completely finished(D)。(99年下考题)

剖析:原话分号并连了语句,故将C改成by which time.

八、省去和倒装

1. 省去是一种防止反复、维持语言表达简约,并使前后文密切联系的英语的语法方式。在省去或取代中,大家常见I think so,I hope so,I‘m afraid so取代上原文中发生的一些內容。其否认方式是I think not,I hope not,I’m afraid not.比如:

“Is he going tonight?”

“I‘m afraid ___________.”(99年下考题)

A.not

B.not so

C.such

D.that she so(回答:A)

2.假如状语从句的谓语和语句谓语同样,其谓语能够省去,比如:

____________ the most poverty-stricken county in the province, my native town has become the most prosperous county.(98年下考题)

A.After

B.Once

C.If only

D.As far as(回答:A)

3.倒装就是指英语短句一切正常的语序发生了转变。否定词在句首的语句要产生部分倒装。

In no country other than(A) England one can(B) experience four seasons in a single day(C), can he(D)?(98年下考题)

剖析:句首一部分有无词no,故B一部分改成can one.

4.Only 状语在句首的语句要产生部分倒装。

Only by driving off the road we were able to avoid a serious accident on our way to London a few days ago.(2000年上考题)

剖析:B一部分改成were we.

5.非真正标准中条件状语分句能够倒装。比如:

____________ you lend me some help, I would feel much obliged.

A.If

B.Were

C.Would

D.Should(99年下考题)

剖析:回答为D,倒装后意指If you should lend…。

作者: 610

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