自考英文最基本的五个时态

英语最常见的语态有五个:一般现在时;现在进行时;一般过去时;一般将来时和现在完成时。一、 一般现在时:用形容词原形表明,但奇数第三人称后得加-s,在词尾加-s时要留意:1. 一般状…

英语最常见的语态有五个:一般现在时;现在进行时;一般过去时;一般将来时和现在完成时。

一、 一般现在时:

用形容词原形表明,但奇数第三人称后得加-s,在词尾加-s时要留意:

1. 一般状况:加-s 例:reads,writes,says

2. 以s,x,ch,sh结束的词加-es 例:teaches,washes,guesses

3. 以辅音字母 y末尾的词变y为i加上-es 例:try—tries,carry—carries.

这一语态的一般疑问句一般以句首加助动词do,does组成。句中形容词要用原形形容词be提早:

do you know it?

are you students?

does she have a pen?

1.一般现在时表明习惯性或下意识的姿势:

we always care for each other and help each other.

they cycle to work every day.

2.如今的特点或情况:

he loves sports.

do you sing?a little.

i major in english.

3. 遍真知:

light travels faster than sound.

two and four makes six.

the moon moves round the earth.

有一些表明情况和觉得的形容词经常可用以一般现在时:be,love,like,hate,want,hope,need,prefer,wish,know, understand,remember,believe,recognize,guess,suppose,mean,belong,think(认为),feel,envy,doubt,remain,consist,contain,seem,look(看上去),see,fit,suit, owe,own,hear,find,suggest,propose,allow,show(表明),prove,mind(在乎),have(有), sound(听起来),taste(尝起来),matter,require,possess,desire这些。

i feel a sharp pain in my chest.

the soup contains too much salt.

you see what i mean?

the coat fits you very well.

how do you find the book?

有一些表明姿势的形容词间或可用以这一语态,表明现刻的姿势,因为姿势延迟时间机短,用以完成时不当然:

i send you my best wishes.

i salute your courage.

now i extend my heartfelt thanks to you.

在英语口语中这一语态用于表明一个按照规定、方案或分配产生的状况(它是都是有一个表明将来時间的状语):

when do the train leave(stop at jinan)?

the plane take off at 11 am.

tomorrow is saturday.

is there a firm on tonight?

但这仅限极少数形容词,如begin,come,go,leave,sail,start,arrive,return,dine,end,stop,depart,open,close,be等。此外,在時间或条件从句中,未来姿势或情况常用这一语态表明:

tell her about that when she come.

turn off the light before you leave.

we‘ll start as soon as you are ready.

在英语口语中,这一语态间或能够用于表明一个早已产生的姿势(这一姿势产生的時间在讲话人的大脑中处在很不重要的影响力):

they say xiao wu is back.is that true?

xiao yu tells me you‘re going abroad.

oh,i forget where he lives.

yes,you answer quite well.

除此之外一般现在时还多用以书报刊、影片、电视机讲解等别的几类状况。

二、 现在进行时

现在进行时用助动词be的人叫方式加现在分词组成,它的毫无疑问、否认、疑惑方式以下:

i am working.

i am not working.

am i working?

现在进行时关键表明如今或如今这一环节已经开展的姿势。

where are they having the basket-ball match?

they are putting up the scaffolding.

he‘s showing a foreign guest round the city.

在许多状况下,表明已经开展的姿势的中文语句,并沒有“已经”那样的字,在译成英文时却务必用开展语态:

how are you getting on with the work?

the work is going fairly smoothly.

you are making rapid progress.

it is blowing hard.

who are you waiting for?

whenever i see her,she is working in the garden.我每一次见到她时,她一直在公园里干活儿。

在一般现在时列出的表明情况和觉得的形容词,一般不可以用以开展语态,由于她们不可以表明已经开展的姿势。但假如词意变化,能表明一个已经开展的姿势,就可以用以开展语态,试较为下边的语句:

do you see anyone over there?你见到那边有哪些人吗?

are you seeing someone off?你一直在给谁送别吗?

i hear someone singing.我听见洱海的有些人歌唱。

they are hearing an english talk?她们在听一个英语汇报。

what do you think of it?你觉得这如何?

what are you thinking about?你在想什么?

此外,表明没法不断姿势的形容词,一般不适合用以开展语态,但有一些能够用以这一语态表明反复、将要等:

he is jumping up and down.她一上一下地跳着。

the train is arriving.列车就需要检票了。

the old man is dying.老头儿病重了。

现在进行时有时候可以用来表明一个在近期按照计划或安分配要开展的姿势(它是多有一个表明将来時间的状语):

we are leaving on friday.

are you going anywhere tomorrow?

a foreign guest is giving a lecture in english this afternoon.

xiao hong!coming.

who is interpreting for you?

we are having a holiday next monday.

但这仅限小量形容词,如go,come,leave,start,arrive,lunch,return,dine,work,sleep,stay,play,do,have,wear等。

此外,“be going 动词不定式”这一构造常常用于表明将要产生的事或准备(提前准备)做的事:

i am afraid it is going to rain.

it is going to be rather cold tomorrow.

she is not going to speak at the meeting.

在这个构造中以往有很多人 不赞同用go和come这两个形容词,觉得很怪怪的,认为不用说are you going to go anywhere tomorrow?而说are you going anywhere tomorrow?不用说is she going to come?而说is she coming?但现在在这类构造选用2个形容词的人愈来愈多,这类使用方法大部分被大伙儿接纳了。

除此之外,在時间和标准状语从句中,间或也可以用现在进行时表明未来的状况或一般状况:

do not mention this when you are talking with him.

remember that when you are taking a rest,some else is always working.

if she is still sleeping,do not wake her up.

现在进行时有时候用于替代一般现在时,表明一个习惯性姿势或情况,它是或者为了更好地表明一种情感(a)如赞美、厌倦等,或者为了更好地注重状况的短暂性(b)。

a. how are you feeling today?(比how do you feel today?更显亲近)

xiao hua is doing fine work at school.(比xiao hua does fine work at school.更富赞扬)

he is always thinking of his work.表赞誉

he is constantly leaving his thing about.她老是乱扔物品。(表不满意)

he is always boasting.他总爱吹牛皮。(表厌倦)

b.he is sleeping in the next room now.他如今现在是在邻居屋子睡了(不会再原先屋子睡了)。

the professor is typing his own letters while his secretary is ill.

where is he working?他如今在那里工作中?(很有可能刚跳槽)

for this week we are starting work at 7:30.

he is walking to work because his bicycle is being repaired.

be间或可用以开展语态,表明一时的主要表现:

you are not being modest.

he is being silly.

she is being friendly.

xiao hong is being a good girl today.

do not talk rot.i am being serious.

注: 在there和here造成的语句中,常可以用一般现在时替代现在进行时:

here comes the bus.(=the bus is coming.)

there goes the bell. (=the bell is ringing.)

在一些状况下二种状况都能够用,沒有是多少区别:

i wonder (am wondering) how i should answer then.

does your leg hurt? (is your leg hurting?)

it itches (is itching) terribly.

my back aches (is aching)。

i write (am writing ) to inform you.

三、 一般将来时

一般将来时由助动词shall或will加形容词原形组成,shall用以第一人称,will用以第二、三人叫。这一语态的毫无疑问、否认及疑惑组织 可表明以下:

i shall go.

i shall not go.

shall i go?

除美国之外的说英文的我国,在陈述句中,即便 在第一人称一般也用will,在美国也是有这类发展趋势,在英语口语中常会缩紧为i‘ll.

一般将来时表明即将产生的姿势和状况:

i will (shall) arrive tomorrow.

will you be busy tonight?

the agreement will come into force next spring.

we won‘t (shan’t) be free tonight.

有时候表明未来的时间状语,有时候沒有时间状语,这时候要从含意上分辨是不是指将来的姿势或状况:

i will think it over.

who will take the chair?

will she come?

they won‘t object it.

在以i 或 we 作谓语的疑问句中,一般用shall,这时候或者征询另一方的建议(a),或者了解一个状况(b):

a. shall i make a fair copy of it?

which book shall i read first?

where shall we meet?

b. shall we have any classes tomorrow?

when shall we have the rehearsal?

shall i be able to find them there?

在这里类疑问句中,近些年也是有许多人买will,尤其是英国。

what will we do?

how will get there?

which will i take?

留意在時间或标准状语从句中,一般不能用将来时态,而用如今语态替代:

i‘ll let you have the book when i’m through.

they‘ll fight till they win complete victory.

i‘ll be round to see you if i have time tomorrow.

注:在二种状况下条件从句可以用一般将来时:

1. 表明心愿:

if they won‘t cooperate, our plan will fall flat.

2.主句的宾语表时如今的状况:

if he won‘t arrive this morning, why should we wait here.

表明即将产生的姿势或状况,除开一般将来时外,也有一些别的构造和语态:

1. be going 动词不定式(表准备、提前准备作的事或将要产生或毫无疑问要产生的事):

we ‘re going to put up a building here.

how are you going to spend your holiday?

who is going to speak first?

2. be 动词不定式(表明按照计划分配要产生的事或用于征询另一方的建议):

when is the factory to go into production?

the line is (going) to be opened to traffic next week.

am i to (=shall i ) go on with the work?

3.一般现在时(仅限于一些形容词,表明按照计划或時刻要产生的事):

school finishes on january 18th.

we get off at the next stop.

when does the winter vacation begin?

4.现在进行时(仅限于一些形容词,表明按照计划分配要产生的事):

we are having an english evening tonight.

they are playing some folk music next.

i am talking the children to the zoo (on sunday )。

在单纯性表明未来状况,尤其是谈一连串的事儿或在带時间或标准状语从句的语句中,宾语常用将来时:

next term i will try to do better. i‘ll speak more english and do more reading-aloud.

he‘ll come to see you when he has time.

he‘ll tell you if you ask him.

在表明准备或提前准备时,如不提時间、标准等,常用be going to这一构造,用一般将来时时非常少的,特别是在英语口语中:

he is going to buy a dictionary.(非常少说he will buy a dictionary.)

在谈将要产生的状况时,用be going to 这一构造也多一些。在表明按照计划分配要做得事时,用be to 的情况下也许多。此外也有将来进行时等语态也可表明未来的姿势。

注:be about to 可表明将要作某件事

we are about to leave.

he is about to retire.

一般将来时有时候还可以用来表明一种趋向或下意识姿势:

a drowning man will catch at a straw.

crops will die without water.

oil will float on water.

注:这一语态有时候用于表明揣摩(a)或容积(b):

a. that man in the middle will be the visiting minister.

b. the hall will seat 500people.

四、 一般过去时

一般过去时由形容词的过去时表明,形容词be有was, were2个过去时,was用以第一、三人叫奇数,were用以别的状况。在组成否认及一般疑问句时,一般都依靠助动词did, 形容词be有其与众不同的疑惑及否认方式(大部分和一般现在时一致)。这一语态的三种构造可表明以下:

一般形容词:

i worked there.

i did not work there.

did you work there?

形容词be:

i was there.

i was not there.

was i there?

一般过去时关键表明以往某时产生的姿势或状况(包含下意识姿势)

who put forward the suggestion?

when did she leave?

she often came to help us.

有一些状况,产生的時间不很清晰,但事实上是以往产生的,理应用过去时态:

i was glad to get your letter.

what was the final score?

how did you like their performance?

*在提到已去世人的状况常用过去式:

lao she was a great writer.

my grandmother was kind to us.

有时候二种语态都能够用:

brahms was/is one of the greatest representative of german classicalism.

注:在英语口语中一般过去时有时候可以用来替代一般现在时,使语调越来越委婉一些,比如在下面语句选用一般现在时或一般过去时都能够,但用过去式看起来客套一些(含有大量商议的语气):

do/did you want to see me?

i wonder/wondered if you could spare a few minutes.

i want/wanted to ask if i can/could borrow your bike.

五、 现在完成时

现在完成时由have的人叫方式加过去分词组成。他的毫无疑问、否认及疑惑方式以下:

i have read it.

i have not read it.

have you read it?

现在完成时表明现刻之前产生的姿势或状况,能够是:

1. 到现在截止的这一时期中产生的状况(很有可能时数次姿势的总数,也可表明情况和下意识姿势):

we have opened up 200 mu of land this year.

how many pages have you covered today?

i haven‘t seen him for many days.

2. 对现况有影响的某一已产生的姿势:

the delegation has already left.

i have seen the film many times.

the city has taken on a new look.

注: 这一语态有时候还能够表明以往曾产生过一次或数次的状况,还可以说成一种历经:

all our children have had measles.

man‘s hairs have grown white in a single might.

he says that he has seen a meteor at some time.

这一语态的基本上特性是它和现在有紧密的联络,或者讲目前为止这一段时间的状况,或者讲一个危害现况的姿势,那样它并不是从時间上就是以不良影响上和如今联络起來。依据这一特性我们可以分辨什么时候用一般过去时,什么时候用现在完成时:

1. 当有一个表明以往某时的状语(包含when)时,不能用现在完成时:

i saw her a minute ago.

just now xiao lin came to see you.

when did you get to know it?

2.当有一个表明到现在截止这段时间的状语时,常用现在完成时:

up till now we have planted over 24,000 fruit trees.

we haven‘t had any physical training classes this week.

he has learned a good deal since he came here.

3.在使用 already, yet, just, as yet, ever, never这类介词作状语时,常可以用现在完成时:

this is the second game. they ‘ve already won a game.

have you got the plan ready yet? –no, not yet.

i‘ve just received a money order.

4.在独立谈一个以往的姿势,不涉及到它对如今的危害时,一般用一般过去时,假如谈一件早已产生的事,不考虑到它是什么时候产生的,而关键考虑到对如今的危害,常用现在完成时:

did you get up very early?

has he got up?

what did you have for lunch?

have you had lunch?

i got the news from xiao yu.

i‘ve got no news from him.

注: 有since造成的状语时,关键宾语一般用完成时态:

we met in 1972,and have been good friends ever since (then)。

it has rained a great deal since you left.

we haven‘t seen each other again since them (since we parted in 1952)。 但在表示时间长短时可以用一般现在时。

l 在应用一个表明情况的形容词(如be, seem等)作宾语时,间或也可以用如今语态:

it‘s ok since i fixed it.

it seems a long time since i was here.

i‘m getting interested in china since you came here. 间或用过去式,尤其时在英语口语中。

i lost ten pounds since i started swimming.

在since造成的状语从句中,一般用一般过去时。但间或可以用现在完成时:

i haven‘t seen him since i have been back.

since i have known her, she has been fond of sports.

有时候一样一句中文,因为应用场所无需,翻译成英文时很有可能必须不一样语态:

has xiao yang come?

did xiao yang come?

how many people have gone to the factory?

how many people went to the factory?

we haven‘t invited him.

we didn‘t invite him.

有时候一样一个姿势,也伴随着讲话的用意不一样而用不一样语态表明:

has he gone to town? how did he go there? 后一句谈姿势自身,与如今无联络。

have you had your lunch? where did you have it? 你吃午饭了没有?在哪吃的?

has she left? why did she leave so early?

一些形容词的现在完成時刻表明一直不断到现在的情况:

how have you been (recently)?

the conference has lasted five days.

we‘ve known each other since we were children.

尤其是形容词be,是经常那样用的:

he‘s been back for three days. (不能用has come back)

she has been a teacher for ten years. (不能说has become)

he has been in college for a year. (不能说has entered)

因为come, become, enter和get up 等形容词都只意味着一个短暂性的姿势,不可以意味着一个持续的情况,它是必须用be来表明持续的情况:

此外有极少数形容词(主要是work, study, teach, live等)可用以现在完成时表明一直不断到现在的一个姿势:

how long have you worked here?

she has taught english for many years.

we‘ve lived here for quite a few years.

但大部分形容词不适合那样用,而要用如今完成进行时。

注:have been (to)长可以用来表明“到过某省”或“刚去做了某件事”

have you ever been to xi‘an?

xiao liu has just been here.

we‘ve been here(there)many times.

l 现在完成时还可以用在表示时间或标准的状语从句中,表明未来某时已然进行的姿势:

i‘ll go and see the exhibition as soon as i have got the recorder fixed.

we‘ll start at five o’clock if it has stopped raining by then

i will gibe my opinion when i have read the book through.

这运用“现在完成时”时表明这姿势将在另一姿势以前进行。假如2个形容词另外产生,或基本上另外产生,(换句话说一个姿势随后另一个姿势),一般就无需这一语态:

i‘ll let you know as soon as i hear from her.

she‘ll write you when she gets there.

在那样的状况下(尤其是在我们用的是get, arrive, see, hear, leave, return 等意味着讯速进行的姿势的形容词时),常用一般现在时。有时候二种语态都能够用:

we‘ll leave as soon as it stops(has stopped) raining.

i‘ll tell him after you leave (have left)。

注:have got 方式处时现在完成时,却和have时同一个含意:

she has got (=has) a slight temperature.

have you got (=do you have) any sisters?

此外,如今有一种趋向,特别是在英国,在随意交谈时,常见一般过去时替代现在完成时:

i saw it already (=i have seen it already)。

did you return the records yet (=have you returned the records yet)?

i just come back (=i‘ve just come back)。

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