自考英语翻译技巧三

英汉互译时的语序难题I.二种语言表达的整体较为:一方面,中英二种语言表达全是依照事情发展趋势的客观现实开展的,因此有其相同点,比如:In order to communicate …

英汉互译时的语序难题I.二种语言表达的整体较为:一方面,中英二种语言表达全是依照事情发展趋势的客观现实开展的,因此有其相同点,比如:In order to communicate thoughts and feelings , people invented a conventional system of signs or symbols which mean the same to the sender and the receiver. (为了更好地更强的交流信息和情感,大家设计方案出了一般用的标识和符号系统软件,而这标识和符号沟通交流双方都可以看的懂。)

之上的好多个词组在中英二种语言表达里的语序全是一样的;而除此之外,还存有着许多不同之处。另一方面,二种语言表达又有很多不同之处。下边就中英二种语言表达的不同之处开展较为:中文较为重视事情发展趋势的客观性次序,先产生哪些,后产生哪些,結果如何,最终才再加上创作者的评价和见解,无论有多少形容词都能够并排、排比句应用,不容易发生句法、语法等的矛盾 .主题风格明显,突出重点,并非仅仅的一个谓语,重视语句的“意和”,这就规定大家通过语句的表层结构,深层次到语句的含义,抓住“总体”印像,充足了解过之后再把原文的意思品牌形象汉语翻译出去。

而英文则要不然,英文突显谓语,通常是评价、见解在前,描述、缘故后面;表层方式上追求完美语句的“形和”,对句子的结构规定十分认真细致,着重强调句子成分的均衡,通常凭借语法、句法(如主从关系句、词性标注、动词不定式等方式)来保持语句表层上的均衡、一致性,竭力防止语句的“上重下轻”(因而,也就发生了很多“it is said that …”这些无主句)。因此 ,英语则是把创作者的见解、认为放到前边,之后再跟随缘故、結果和目地这些从句。这种状况在新闻英语里特别是在显著,怪不得有些人说,“中文的句子成分如同一根毛竹,一节一节地连下来,而英语的句子构造如同一窜红提,主杆很有可能很短,遍体鳞伤果子粘附在上面。”详细情况以下:

II. 英汉互译时的先后顺序比照:1.The old-fashioned general store is fast disappearing.This is, perhaps, a pity ,because shopping today seems to lack that personal element which existed when shop keeper knew all his regular customers personally. 故时的百货商店迅速就消失了。以往,店家暗地里都了解他的老主顾们,而在今天这类事儿从此荡然无存了,这确实是太遗憾了。

2.American education owes a great deal to Tomas Jefferson ……

托马。杰弗逊为英国的文化教育做出了非常大的奉献。

下边的语句属倒装句型,是典型性的中英在翻译时的次序差别:

1.Under the dust was a color map of Paris.(巴黎地图上铺满了尘土。)

2.Written on the card was a message under the printed Happy Birthday. (信用卡上“生日开心”字眼的下边写着一条信息。)

恰好是因为之上的缘故,才会发生二种语言表达在思维方式、逻辑判断上的不一样:

III.英汉互译时思维逻辑次序上的差别:如上所述,假如一个语句里不仅有叙述的一部分,又有表态发言的一部分,在中文里通常是叙述在前,表态发言后面,叙述一部分能够较长,表态发言一部分一般都很短。而在英语里则通常反过来,表态发言在前,叙述后面。比如:1.表缘故:a ……I am very happy and grateful to receive your message of greetings.收到大家的贺函,我十分开心和谢谢。

但是,解决这类句行后要留意英汉互译时的次序难题,比如:

My friend asked the question when I told him that I didn‘t want to be considered for an administrative position. He was puzzled that I did not want what was obviously a “step up” toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up: money and power. 全部外国人受的文化教育便是:长大后应当追求完美钱财和权利,可是我却偏要不必本来是朝这一总体目标 “迈入” 的工作中,他对于此事大或不解。

2.表目地The two sides agreed that it is desirable to broaden the understanding between the two peoples.协商一致,扩张两国人民中间的掌握是可用的。

3.表标准和結果时的次序:a.One can never succeed without making great 1(結果) 2(标准)

efforts.译文翻译:(不努力就不容易取得成功。)

2 (标准) 1(結果)

4.在表明妥协的语句里,一般也是缘故在前,結果后面:Young as he is, he works hard.(虽然他很年青,可他工作中很买力。)

此外:下边的这一语句还可以视作結果一类的语句,它的中英二种语言表达的次序很能表明难题:

c.在现如今的学界,早已不断涌现了大量的高层次人才。

Large numbers of talented persons have come to the fore in today‘s education circle.

d. Little is known about the effect of life-long drinking.大家有关终身喝酒的实际效果却了解的非常少

III.因英语的语法方式而导致的中英顺序不一1.此外一些表明存有句的语句里也可看到很多的中英顺序不一的状况:There was rising in him a dreadful uneasiness ; something very precious that he wanted to hold seemed close to destruction.(他内心泛起一种寂然的焦躁,由于他原先一直想挽救的物品如今好像要摧毁了。)

此外,英文里的有一些形式主语也大多数选用了倒装语序:2.无主句:It suddenly dawned on me that this express was not roaring down the line at ninety miles an hour , but barely chugging along at thirty.(之后,.我忽然搞清楚,此次顺风车并不是以90公里的车速疾弛而下,而只不过以30公里的车速渐渐地向前行驶。)

It is reported that …………

3.在一些表明“结合性”的定语从句中:a.There are many people who want to see the film.(很多人 需看这部影片)

b.There is a man downstairs who wants to see you. (楼底下有些人要见你)

4.倒装句形a.Not a single word have we written down as yet.(否认)

(大家连一个字也没有写。)

b.Little does he realize the danger he is in(否认)

(他一点也没有意识到危险因素。)

IV. 因句子成分变换而导致的语序不一:Cold drinks will be available at the Sports Center.健身运动管理中心也给予冷食。(状语转翻译成谓语)

V.留意下边的一些独特的构造:

我国自打中国改革开放至今,发生了非常大的转变。

有些人居然译成:1.误:Since China ‘s policy of reform and opening, China has taken place a great many changes.

正:A great many changes have taken place in China since the policy of reform and opening to the outside world.

2.车轮子是公元六世纪创造发明的。

600 B.C. saw the invention of wheel.

作者: 610

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