自考英语词汇学复习资料四

第四章The expansion of vocabulary in modern English depends chiefly on word-formation.Not all…

第四章

The expansion of vocabulary in modern English depends chiefly on word-formation.

Not all the words that are produced by applying the rules are acceptable.

Rules only provide a constant set of models from which new words are created from day to day.

Rules themselves are not fixed but undergo changes.

affixation 30%-40% compounding 28%-30% conversion 26% shortening 8%-10% (clipping and acronymy) blending and others 1%-5%

1. Affixation (Derivation) —— the formation of words by adding word forming or derivational affixes to stems. (derivative派生词)

According to their position, affixation falls into: prefixation and suffixation.

1). Prefixation —— the formation of new words by adding prefixes to stems. It does not change the word-class of the stem but change its meaning.

1. Negative prefixes – a- (abnormal), dis- (disobey), in- (il-, ir-, im-) (injustice), non- (non-smoker), un- (unwilling) un- are the most productive and can usually replace in- or dis- with adj.

2. Reversative prefixes – de- (decentralize), dis- (disunite), un- (unwrap)

3. Pejorative prefixes – mal- (maltreat), mis- (mistrust), pseudo- (pseudo-science)

4. Prefixes of degree or size – arch- (archbishop), extra-(extra-strong), hyper-(hyperactive), macro- (macrocosm), micro- (microcomputer), mini- (mini-election), out- (outlive), over- (overweigh), sub- (subheading), super- (superfreeze), sur- (surtax), ultra- (ultra-conservative), under-(underdeveloped)

5. Prefixes of orientation and attitude – anti- (anti-nuclear), contra- (contraflow), counter-, pro-(pro-student)

6. Locative prefixes – extra- (extraordinary), fore- (forehead), inter- (inter-city), intra- (intra-party), tele-, trans-

7. Prefixes of time and order – ex- (ex-wife), fore- (foretell), pre-, re- (reconsider)

8. Number Prefixes – bi-, multi- (poly-) (multi-purpose), semi- (hemi-), tri- (tricycle), uni-(mono-) (uniform)

9. Miscellaneous prefixes – auto-, neo- (neo-Nazi), pan- (pan-European), vice-

2). Suffixation ——Suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to stems. Change the grammatical function of stems (the word class). Suffixes can be grouped on a grammatical basis.

Noun suffixes

Denominal nouns (名词+suffix ——名词)

a. Concrete —— -eer (engineer), -er (teenager), -ess (hostess), -ette (cigarette), -let (booklet)

b. Abstract —— -age (wastage), -dom (处于…状态)(officialdom), -ery (slavery), -ery (-ry), -hood (childhood), -ing (farming), – ism(…主义) (terrorism), -ship(状态) (sportsmanship)

Deverbal nouns (动词+suffix——名词)

a. Denoting people —— -ant (assistant), -ee (trainee), -ent (respondent), -er(-or)

b. Denoting action, result, process, state, ect. —— -age (linkage), -al (dismissal), -ance (attendance), -ation(-ition, -tion, -sion, -ion), -ence (existence), -ing (savings), -ment (statement)

De-adjective nouns (形容词+suffix——名词) —— -ity (popularity), -ness (happiness)

Nouns and adjectives suffixes —— -ese (Chinese), -an (Australian), -ist (主义) (socialist)

Adjective suffixes

Denominal suffixes —— -ed (wooded), -ful (successful), -ish (foolish), -less (priceless), -like (lady-like), -ly (friendly), -y (smoky)

-al(-ial, -ical) (cultural, residential), -esque (picturesque), -ic (economic), -ous(-eous, -ious) (coutageous)

-ic and –ical can be affixed to the stem in some cases, but differ in meaning.

Historic (important in history) historical (of history)

Classic (great, memorable) classical (of Latin or Greek)

Comic (of comedy) comical (funny)

Economic (in the economy) economical (money-saving)

Electric (powered by electricity) electrical (of electricity)

Deverbal suffixes —— -able (-ible) (washable), -ive(-ative, -sive) (active, decisive)

Adverb suffixes —— -ly (calmly), -ward(s) (homewards), -wise (clockwise)

Verb suffixes —— -ate(originate), -en (darken), -(i)fy (beautify), -ize (ise) (modernize)

Nik most of them are considered slang.

2. Compounding (Composition)——Compounding is a process of word-formation by joining two or more stems.

Compounds- a lexical unit consisting of more than one stem and functioning both grammatically and semantically as a single word.

三种形式solid, hyphenated, open

1). Characteristics (differ from free phrases)

Phonetic features

Compound (not absolute) Free phrase

Stress on the first element Stress on the second element

Semantic features

Compounds are different from free phrases in semantic unity.

Every compound should express a single idea just as one word.

A lot of compounds are transparent and the meaning can be inferred from the separate elements of compounds.

Grammatical features

A compound plays a single grammatical role in a sentence.

In adjective-noun compounds, the adjective element cannot take inflectional suffixes.

Compound Free phrase

fine art finer art

Formation

Most compounds consist of 2 stems, but are formed on a rich variety of patterns and the internal grammatical relationship within the words is considered complex.

Noun compounds

Adjective compounds

Verb compounds (through conversion and back formation)

Back formed verb compounds are formed mainly by dropping the suffixes, -er, -ing,-ion, -etc.

3.Conversion (zero-derivation, functional shift) ——Conversion is the formation of new words by converting words of one class to another class. These words are new only in a grammatical sense. The most productive is between nouns and verbs.

A change of grammatical function

The different range of meaning

Conversion to noun

Verb to noun-almost all monomorphemic verbs can be used as nouns.

1. State (of mind or sensation)

2. Event or activity

3. Result of the action

4. Doer of the action

5. Tool or instrument

6. Place of the action

Adjective to noun (full conversion, partial conversion)

1. Words fully converted-a noun converted from an adjective has all the characteristics of nouns. It can take an identical article or –e(s).

2. Words partially converted – do not possess all the qualities a noun does. They must be used together with definite articles. They retain some of the adjective features. Words of this class generally refer to a group of the kind.

3. Miscellaneous conversion

Conversion to verbs

1. Noun to verb-verbs of this kind are all transitive.

2. Adjective to verb

3. Miscellaneous conversion

4.Blending—is the word formation by combining parts of two words or a word plus a part of another word.

Head + tail autocide / motel/ slurb / cremains / chunnel

Head + head comsat / telex / Amerind / sitcom / FORTRAM

Head + word medicare / Eurasia / telequiz / atuocamp

Word + tail lunarnaut / bookmobile / workfare / tourmobile

The overwhelming majority of blends are nouns, very few are verbs and adjectives are even fewer.

5.Clipping – shorten a longer word by cutting a part of the origin and using what remains instead. People tend to ve economical in writing and speech to keep up the tempo of new life style.

Front clipping

Quake (earthquake) / Copter(helicopter)/ scope (telescope)/ phone (telephone)

Back clipping

Dorm(dormitory) / momo( )/stereo( )/gent( )/fan( )/disco( )

Front and back clipping

Phrase clipping

Pub( )/pop( )/zoo( )/perm( )

6.Acronymy – joining the initial letters of names of social and political organizations or special phrases and technical terms

Initialisms

are words formed from the initial letters of words and pronounced as letters. It’s one of the word formations of acronymy.

E.g. IMF/ai em ef/=International Monetary Fund.

Acronyms

are words formed from the initial letters of word and pronounced as words. . It’s one of the word formations of acronymy.

E.g. NATO/’neito/=North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

7.Back-formation—— is a process of word-formation by which a word is created by the deletion of a supposed affix. It is considered to be the opposite process of suffixation.

8.Words from proper names modern English has a large number of words which come from proper nouns. They include

1. Names of people

Words of this group are from names of scientists, investors, etc. these terms are used as measurements.

Some words are from characters in mythology.

Some are from historical figures.

Some words are from characters in literary books.

2.Names of places

Many words denoting products, objects or materials come from the names of places where they were first produced.

3.Names of books

4.Tradenames

When proper nouns are communized, many of them have lost their original identity. They can be converted to other classes. These words can also take suffixes.

Words that are communized from proper nouns have rich culture associations and thus stylistically vivid, impressive and though-provoking.

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